Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death in the U.S., prompting extensive research on effective preventive measures. While aerobic exercise has been extensively studied for its cardiovascular benefits, a new study from Iowa State University sheds light on the effectiveness of different exercise regimens, including resistance training. The study, one of the longest and largest supervised exercise trials, compares the impact of aerobic-only, resistance-only, and combined aerobic and resistance exercise on cardiovascular disease risks.
The one-year randomized controlled exercise trial involved 406 participants aged 35 to 70, all meeting the criteria for being overweight or obese with elevated blood pressure. The participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: no exercise, aerobic-only, resistance-only, or combined aerobic and resistance exercise. The exercise groups worked out under supervision for one hour, three times a week for a year.
The study indicates that splitting the recommended amount of physical activity between aerobic and resistance exercise reduces cardiovascular disease risks as much as aerobic-only regimens.
Resistance exercise on its own, for the same duration, did not provide the same heart health benefits compared to the control group.
All three exercise groups showed a significant reduction in body fat percentage compared to the no-exercise control group.
Every 1% reduction in body fat was associated with lower risks of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and metabolic syndrome.
Composite Cardiovascular Score:
The aerobic and combined exercise groups had lower composite scores, considering systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, and body fat percentage.
Lower composite scores indicate a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease risk factors.
- The aerobic-only group improved in aerobic fitness (VO2max test), while the resistance-only group improved in muscular strength (maximal bench and leg press tests).
- The combination exercise group demonstrated improvements in both aerobic fitness and muscular strength.
- Implications and Recommendations
- The study supports physical activity guidelines recommending both resistance and aerobic exercise for individuals with obesity.
- Combining aerobic and resistance exercise can offer cardiovascular benefits, making it a viable alternative for those who find aerobic exercise monotonous.
The findings highlight the need for further research to determine the optimal dose of resistance exercise for individuals with obesity.
With a new grant, the lead author plans to explore the ideal duration of resistance exercise sessions to maximize health benefits. The upcoming randomized controlled trial will investigate various time durations of resistance sessions among adults who are overweight or obese.
In conclusion, this study contributes valuable insights into crafting comprehensive exercise recommendations for optimizing cardiovascular health, particularly in individuals with obesity.
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